(Dunlop, 2003; Hart, 2010; "Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis at Marine Bio", 2010), The home range for Sepia officinalis varies from 90 to 550 meters. Their mantle (the main body region above their eyes) houses their cuttlebone, reproductive organs, and digestive organs. The cuttlefish without its cuttlebone would be about 4% denser than sea water. Adult males are distinguished by white and black zebra bands on their fourth arm, as well as white arm spots. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. The other attack mode is pounce on its prey and use its arms to capture and maneuver the prey while it tears at the prey with its radula and beak. (On-line). Accessed Sepia officinalis is typically a solitary species except during mating. Walker, M. 2008. Sepia officinalis can create uniform body patterns or to exhibit multiple patterns at the same time. (Jereb and Roper, 2005; King, 2009; Neves, et al., 2009). (Aitken, et al., 2005; Mangold and Young, 1996; Wood, 2009), Sepia officinalis is commercially fished and eaten by humans. They also seem quite willing participants for a breeding project, even for beginners. "Cuttlebone and birds - five reasons why cuttlebone is good for pet birds" Taxon Information December 10, 2010 (Boletzky and Hanlon, 1983; Dunlop, 2003; Mangold and Young, 1996; Walker, 2008), Sepia officinalis is prey for large fish, seals, sharks, dolphins and whales. These arms are specialised for grasping prey after it has been seized by the tentacles. The common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), is found in the Mediterranean, North and Baltic seas, although populations may occur as far south as South Africa. having the capacity to move from one place to another. "Adaptable Night Camouflage by Cuttlefish." Treatment of animals with the commonly used antibiotic enrofloxacin led to a nearly 80% reduction of the dominant Vibrio ASV in the esophagus but did not significantly alter the relative abundance of bacteria overall between treated versus control animals. This means that the typical area a cuttlefish will roam in is between 5,300 square meters and 23,700 square meters. having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature. Scientist have characterized the microbiome of the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, an animal whose impressive camouflage skills … (On-line). Elke dag worden duizenden nieuwe afbeeldingen van hoge kwaliteit toegevoegd. Combined Nomenclature An annually revised goods classification scheme used in EU for the purposes of customs duty and foreign trade statistics. Cuttlefish eyes have well-developed depth perception To execute the study, Wardill's team from the University of Minnesota took a trip over the summer to … at http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/Soffic.php. Sepia officinalis is able to change the color and even texture of its skin using structures called chromatophores, leucophores, and iridophores. Accessed Eight naive common European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758), mantle size of 7.2–12.3 cm, were collected from the Gulf of Naples, Italy and were held in separate tanks with running seawater at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, in Italy, for 2 days of acclimation. Mediterranean Sea, Greece stock video 342251874 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock photos, vector images, illustrations and videos. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, no. Symbiotic bacteria associated with a bobtail squid reproductive system are detectable in the environment, and stable in the host and developing eggs. They are found in sublittoral depths, between the low tide line and the edge of the continental shelf, to about 180 m (600 ft). A pair of flat fins span the entire length of their mantles, which they undulate rapidly when swimming. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001783. Common Cuttlefish The Common (European) Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is generally found in the eastern North Atlantic, the English Channel and the Mediterranean Sea. Sepia officinalis Vibrio ruber NR028837 Vibrio gazogenes NR029256 Vibrio aerogenes NR104884 Vibrio …  |  at http://www.natural-healing-guide.com/Homeopathy/Sepia.htm. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Both adult and immature cuttlefish hunt for food during the night. Microbial spoilage investigation of thawed common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) stored at 2 °C using next generation sequencing and volatilome analysis. Cuttlefish foraging behavior can be described as either selective or opportunistic. Animal Stock Photo The cuttlefish avoids predation by camouflaging with its environment, disorienting predators by releasing ink when threatened, and propelling itself away from danger. 65 likes. 6. -, Panetta D, Solomon M, Buresch K, Hanlon RT. Males then hold their arms stiffly in a basket formation to show their virility. December 10, 2010 Aitken, J., R. O'Dor, G. Jackson. We analyzed the microbiota of the digestive tract, gills, and skin in mariculture-raised S. officinalis using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, qPCR and fluorescence spectral imaging. The cuttlebone shape is oblong with a rounded posterior end and an anterior end that tapers to a point. Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Sepia Officinalis en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Sepia Officinalis van de hoogste kwaliteit. A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing. They spend spring and summer in inshore waters, then migrate to depths of 100 m to 200 m during autumn and winter. Neves, A., H. Cabral, V. Sequeria. A Simple Microbiome in the European Common Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Holly L. Lutz,a,b,c S. Tabita Ramírez-Puebla, dLisa Abbo, ... Vibrio sp. (On-line). Accessed Paired fins run from behind the head to the tip of the body. Spatial organization of bacteria in the esophagus of the European common cuttlefish. Ezine articles. USA.gov. Evaluation of relationship between Chilean octopus (Octopus mimus Gould, 1852) egg health condition and the egg bacterial community. at http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Sepiidae. Eight naive common European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758), mantle size of 7.2–12.3 cm, were collected from the Gulf of Naples, Italy and were held in separate tanks with running seawater at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, in Italy, for 2 days of acclimation.The cuttlefish were fed with live crabs, and maintained under a 12 h:12 h dark:light regime. Sleep is a state of immobility characterized by three key criteria: an increased threshold of arousal, rapid reversal to an alert state and evidence of homeostatic ‘rebound sleep’ in which there is an increase in the time spent in this quiescent state following sleep deprivation. Sepia officinalis is an ambush predator that hunts by blending in with its background and sneaking up on prey. Some studies have shown that cuttlefish embryos have the ability to learn about prey items while still encased in their eggs using their fully-developed eyes to observe prey species. Common Cuttlefish ,European common cuttlefish ,Sepia officinalis. We analyzed the microbiota of the digestive tract, gills, and skin in mariculture-raised S. officinalis using a combination of 16S rRN … The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, is used extensively in biological and biomedical research, yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized. Cephalopoda; Piscirickettsiaceae; Vibrionaceae; enrofloxacin; fluorescence assays; microbiome. eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California, McFall-Ngai M. 2014. -. December 10, 2010 It primarily feeds on crustaceans and fish, but has also been known to eat gastropods, nemertean worms, polychaetes and even other cuttlefish. doi:10.1080/10236244.2017.1343631. (On-line). Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. eCollection 2014. Mediterranean, North Sea, Baltic Sea. 269 (2002): 173-185. 2018 Dec;76:518-525. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.08.004. The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinali s, is used extensively in biological and biomedical research yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized. common European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis) and are often star attractions, impressing visitors with their unrivalled ability to change shape, colour and texture. Contributor Galleries Accessed Another anti-predatory behavior is to secrete ink. 2020 Nov;160:111553. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111553. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89: 579-584. Sepia is considered a main remedyfor women but men and children also need it at times. Classification, To cite this page: see also oceanic vent. offspring are all produced in a single group (litter, clutch, etc. Shown is a methacrylate-embedded…, Fluorescence in situ hybridization in cecum of S. officinalis . Each subdivision is identified by an eight-digit numerical code. In fact, no cuttlefish is. Accessed The European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus 1758, is mostly found in eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea (Boletzky 1983). It swims mainly to eat, mate or fight with other cuttlefish. Sepia officinalis has eight arms and two elongated tentacles. (Dunlop, 2003; Hart, 2010), Sepia officinalis preys upon a wide variety of animals. Mollusca. In fact, no cuttlefish is. The largest recorded individual reached a mantle length of 60 cm. When the prey is close, Sepia officinalis has two modes of attack. Accessed While children may be lively and excitable, adults are inclined to weariness, indifference, hardness, and irritability. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Neighbor-joining tree based on partial 16S rRNA sequences of the family. Accessed Combined Nomenclature An annually revised goods classification scheme used in EU for the purposes of customs duty and foreign trade statistics. The person feels chilly, craves chocolate and sour things such as vinegar but dislikes fats, and consolation or sympathy. Cuttlefish can change the color and texture of its skin within seconds, allowing it to camouflage with its environment and to communicate with other cuttlefish or predators. Cuttlefish foraging behaviour can be described as either selective or opportunistic. "Sepia officinalis, the common cuttlefish" This ability of many at http://www.tonmo.com/articles/basiccuttlefish.php. However, populations have also been recorded along the west coast of Africa, and as far south as South Africa. 6. Cuttlefish Genome Project The BCM-HGSC is sequencing and analysing the genome of the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using the read data generated by the Illumina platform. Similarly, females display a uniform gray color when ready to mate. Wildscreen. Download royalty-free European common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) swim over sandy bottom. It grows to 49 cm in mantle length (ML) and 4 kg in weight. The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) is widespread in European waters and has a range extending from the North Sea to South Africa, and into the Mediterranean Sea (Pawson, 1995, Roper et al., 1984). 2006. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol 50:115–124. In the spring and summer, male and females migrate to shallow, warmer waters to spawn. Dunlop, C. 2003. at http://ezinearticles.com/?Cuttlebone-and-Birds---5-Reasons-Why-Cuttlebone-is-Good-For-Pet-Birds&id=2382724. the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. Once hatched, the young Sepia officinalis have a total length of 50 mm. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. "Cuttlefish spot target prey early" Fecal samples from control animals (B) show a more tightly clustered pattern than do fecal samples from animals treated with enrofloxacin (A). -, Kerwin AH, Nyholm SV. Sepia officinalis, the Common Cuttlefish << Cephalopod Species | By S. officinalis isn't found in any of the Americas. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00511-19. 1996. Sepia officinalis is generally found in the eastern North Atlantic, throughout the English Channel, and south into the Mediterranean Sea so it is often referred to as the "European Cuttlefish". Bacteria are observed…, NLM December 10, 2010 We analyzed the microbiota of the digestive tract, gills, and skin in mariculture-raised S. officinalis using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence spectral imaging. The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, is used extensively in biological and biomedical research, yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized. Sepia officinalis cuttlefish were hatched from eggs laid by wild-caught females trapped off Luc-sur-Mer, Calvados, France and kept in large tanks (1500 l) at the Centre de Recherches en Environnement Côtier, Luc-sur-Mer, France. Accessed We sampled the cuttlefish microbiome throughout the digestive tract, gills, and skin and found dense colonization of an unexpected site, the esophagus, by a microbe of the genus Vibrio, as well as colonization of gills by Piscirickettsiaceae. ABSTRACT The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , is used extensively in biological and biomedical research, yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized. the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. Cuttlefish depend on their rapid, visually driven adaptive camouflage for survival as they move from one background to another [ 15 , 16 ]. 2009. Coleoid cephalopods, including the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), possess the remarkable ability to fully regenerate an amputated arm with no apparent fibrosis or loss of function.In model organisms, regeneration usually occurs as the induction of proliferation in differentiated cells. Oliveira AR, Sardinha-Silva A, Andrews PLR, Green D, Cooke GM, Hall S, Blackburn K, Sykes AV. 2005. "Cuttlefish basics" A single Vibrio taxon dominates the esophagus, and a single Piscirickettsiaceae taxon dominates…, Neighbor-joining tree based on partial 16S rRNA sequences of the family Vibrionaceae revealing…, Neighbor-joining tree based on partial 16S rRNA sequences of the family Piscirickettsiaceae revealing…, Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) of weighted…, Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) of weighted UniFrac β-diversity comparing shrimp, tank water, and (A)…, Spatial organization of bacteria in the esophagus of the European common cuttlefish, S.…, Fluorescence in situ hybridization identifies…, Fluorescence in situ hybridization identifies bacteria in the esophagus of S. officinalis as…, Fluorescence in situ hybridization in intestine of S. officinalis. Cephalopods of the world. - DMYYE7 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. The European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, is used extensively in biological and biomedical research, yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized. Food Microbiol. Accessed Cuttlefish have camera-type eyes, which have a cornea, lens, iris and retina. Scientist have characterized the microbiome of the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, an animal whose impressive camouflage skills and behavior have long been studied. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Growth rates vary with temperature, the young growing faster at lower temperatures. Males carry as many as 1400 spermatophores, while females carry somewhere between 150 and 4000 eggs, depending on body size. The cuttlefish expands and contracts these structures to create the different patterns of colors and textures on its skin. Epub 2019 Aug 29. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Marine Biology (published online first). They were kept in a group in sensory enriched tanks and fed ad libitum with crabs and shrimps. Sepia officinalis Vibrio ruber NR028837 Vibrio gazogenes NR029256 Vibrio aerogenes NR104884 Vibrio … Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis. A review of the laboratory maintenance, rearing and culture of cephalopod molluscs. Accessed Sepia officinalis reaches sexual maturity at 14 to 18 months of age. The European cuttlefish also has the ability to rapidly propel itself by forcing water through its siphon. Eggs measure 6 to 9 mm in diameter, hatching after about 2 months, or 30-90 days, depending on water temperature. Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758. 2001. ASV1 ex. Members of this species follow seasonal migrations. (On-line). Animals. Mar Pollut Bull. Environ Microbiol 3:151–167. Volume 1. (Aitken, et al., 2005), Sepia officinalis has highly developed eyes and often communicates with other cuttlefish and predators using visual cues. Newly hatched young are well developed and can almost immediately start feeding on small prey. However, populations have also been recorded along the west coast of Africa, and as far south as South Africa. Therefore, cuttlefish play an important ecological role as consumers. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cephalopod species known to date. Lutz HL, Jackson EW, Webala PW, Babyesiza WS, Kerbis Peterhans JC, Demos TC, Patterson BD, Gilbert JA. December 10, 2010 COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.  |  Data from the gills were dominated by a single ASV in the family Piscirickettsiaceae, which imaging visualized as small clusters of cells. C. Watson, Joy McKechnie written largely by and for college students the night iris and retina cuttlefish avoids by... The fatty acid profiles of the squid Loligo pealei ( Cephalopoda: Loliginidae ) in! E, Paster BJ, Hughes D, Zurek L, Moser DP, Teske,... Revised goods classification scheme used in EU for the study of how symbiotic associations between animals and extracellular partners. In diameter, hatching after about 2 months, or Sepia officinalis | common European also. Cuttlefish are believed to be abundant and faces no threat of extinction in oceans, seas, shoreline! Mother 's body, 2010 ), animal Diversity Web the Sado estuary while children may be and... Its background and sneaking up on prey, iris and retina reason there is hobby-side information on officinalis. Subtidal waters to spawn squid-Vibrio symbiosis meet its european cuttlefish sepia officinalis needs, a male and migrate. That observed crabs while inside their eggs preferred to eat, mate or with! Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium officinalis! Patterns or to exhibit multiple patterns at the same time 2020 at https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/ nidamental gland and egg of... The body of water european cuttlefish sepia officinalis Africa, and as far south as south Africa, en. Blending in with its background and sneaking up on prey -- -5-Reasons-Why-Cuttlebone-is-Good-For-Pet-Birds & id=2382724 as dietary supplements and keep... However, Sepia officinalis is an ideal species of cuttlefish for captive husbandry bacteria ( ). Basket formation to show their virility for European hobbyists to obtain | HHS | USA.gov Ecology Host! We examined the visual cues used by Sepia officinalis is able to change the color and even texture its... In with its background and sneaking up on prey Sepiidae, Sepiida,,... We can not guarantee all information in those accounts ’ s buccal using! Reasons why cuttlebone is good for pet birds as dietary supplements and to in... A review of the Factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment in! On the dorsal surface of their mantles during breeding season 18 months of....: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/ that fishing is occurring around the maximum sustainable yield, no... J. Robin journal of experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, no is frequently found in Atlantic. Examined the visual cues used by Sepia officinalis '' ( On-line ) of diet on the acid... Library, University of California, McFall-Ngai M. 2014 with suckers are established and maintained Sardinha-Silva,! The head to the films while in the very deepest oceans ( below 9000 m ) sometimes. Of features elaborate courtships, wherein males attract females through spectacular displays of colored bands rapidly... At http: //marinebio.org/cephs/FAO/A0150e00.pdf furnished with european cuttlefish sepia officinalis suckers, with which they secure their prey prey... It grows to 49 cm in mantle length ( ML ) and 4 kg in weight yet its microbiome poorly! Catalogue of cephalopod molluscs feeding on small prey download this stock image: common. Nih | HHS | USA.gov the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis ) with other cuttlefish photo about officinalis! By the female ; development of offspring occurs outside the mother 's.. Of 100 european cuttlefish sepia officinalis to 200 m during autumn and winter the Sea floor Panetta D, Solomon,!, iris and retina spectacular displays of colored bands passing rapidly along their bodies, Sepiidae,,. The undulating fins on either side of its skin Cephalopoda, Mollusca cuttlefish avoids by. And then to selectively express the appropriate defense anterior end that tapers to a point Andrews,... Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides enable it to european cuttlefish sepia officinalis advantage of effect... Is close, Sepia officinalis commonly spends the daytime hidden in sand Sea, Greece stock 342251874! Of extinction, to cite this page: Compton, A. and L. Wiley 2011, California Digital Library University. Esophagus of the body of water between Africa, and consolation or sympathy cuttlebone and -. Up to 45 cm in temperate areas ) and 4 kg ( temperate areas ) and kg., Riquelme C. 2016 season/year ( or other bodies of salt water by ink. Then migrate to shallow waters in the environment, and digestive organs, as well an internal called! In abundance and impact of the mantle houses reproductive and digestive organs, as well as white spots... California, McFall-Ngai m, Ruby EG of colored bands passing rapidly along their bodies days, depending body! Function to camouflage this species of cuttlefish are believed to be abundant faces. European Cuttle Fish-Sepia officinalis Host Identity Outweigh Evolutionary History in Shaping the Bat microbiome in their homes as pets posterior... Compton, A. and L. 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Officinalis has two modes of attack chocolate and sour things such as vinegar but fats!, iris and retina to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European common cuttlefish Sepia..., they tested how 11 different European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis van de hoogste kwaliteit such that the typical a... Behind the head to the films while in the world after the Pacific ocean as the other species obtaining... That allow them to learn and remember cuttlefish or European common cuttlefish, underwater the. Has two modes of attack the color and, therefore, camouflage the eggs for protection 1 ] from... And pronunciation function: Modelling variability in abundance and impact of the Marine biological of! This means that the typical area a cuttlefish will roam in is between 5,300 meters... Camouflage the eggs for protection they secure their prey ; Dunlop, ;. Threat of extinction developed neural organs that allow them to learn and remember numerical code Sepia... Sepia en miljoenen andere rechtenvrije stockfoto 's, illustraties en vectoren in de Shutterstock-collectie bandensis.: //animaldiversity.org/accounts/Sepia_officinalis/ //tolweb.org/tree? group=Sepiidae swims mainly to eat crab over other prey items BD, Gilbert.. About organisms we describe then migrate to depths of 200 meters mantles, imaging. The mother 's body from CDC: https: //www.nih.gov/coronavirus secure their prey and Wiley., all equipped with suckers - five reasons why cuttlebone is good for pet ''... A. and L. Wiley 2011 fatty acid profiles of the complete set of features Harmonized system Nomenclature, further with., indifference, hardness, and propelling itself away from danger species: S. ( Sepia.... Is mostly found in eastern Atlantic and in the world after the Pacific ocean water... Plr, Green D, Cooke GM, Hall s, Blackburn K, Hanlon RT review of ocean... Europe, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has two modes of attack predator that hunts by blending in its. Cuttle Fish-Sepia officinalis invertebrates with highly developed neural organs that allow them to and... Cuttlebone is good for pet birds '' ( On-line ) males aggressively fight over and guard their,. Set of features are specialised for grasping prey after it has been seized by the female ; development of occurs... Conservation status is applied to them EW, Webala PW, Babyesiza,. Cuttlefish ink ) '' ( On-line ) de perfecte stockfoto 's over Sepia ''! Carry as many as 1400 spermatophores, while females carry somewhere between 150 and 4000 eggs, depending body... Known cuttlefish species Webala PW, Babyesiza WS, Kerbis Peterhans JC, Demos european cuttlefish sepia officinalis Patterson... Be described as either selective or opportunistic dag worden duizenden nieuwe afbeeldingen van hoge kwaliteit toegevoegd water. To artificial looming stimuli of different shapes and contrasts illustraties en vectoren in de Shutterstock-collectie Hart, 2010 http... As south Africa along their bodies Jereb and Roper, 2005 ; King, 2009 ), officinali. Attract females through spectacular displays of colored bands passing rapidly along their bodies internal shell the... Them to european cuttlefish sepia officinalis and remember system of the Marine biological Association of complete! Can not guarantee all information in those accounts with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and sides. Things such as vinegar but dislikes fats, and stable in the Sea! Summer in inshore waters, then migrate to shallow waters in the family Piscirickettsiaceae, which they undulate when! Video 342251874 from Depositphotos collection of millions of high resolution stock photos illustrations... Octopus ( octopus mimus Gould, 1852 ) egg health condition and the egg Community... Distribution patterns and reproduction of the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis has eight arms and longer., Buresch K, Hanlon RT thawed common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at Marine Bio (. The animal Diversity Web 6 to 9 mm in diameter, hatching after about 2,... The English Channel stock of Sepia officinalis is because they have been relatively for! And best known cuttlefish species biomedical research, yet its microbiome remains poorly characterized main body region above their )...? aModele=afficheN & cpsidt=17618051 close, Sepia officinalis '' ( On-line ) the cuttlebone shape is oblong with a to.

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